## Summary and Descriptive Statistics

There is often the requirement to evaluate descriptive statistics for data within the organization or for health care information. Every year the National Cancer Institute collects and publishes data based on patient demographics. Understanding differences between the groups based upon the collected data often informs health care professionals towards research, treatment options, or patient education.

Using the data on the “National Cancer Institute Data” Excel spreadsheet, calculate the descriptive statistics indicated below for each of the Race/Ethnicity groups. Refer to your textbook and the Topic Materials, as needed, for assistance in with creating Excel formulas.

Provide the following descriptive statistics:

- Measures of Central Tendency: Mean, Median, and Mode
- Measures of Variation: Variance, Standard Deviation, and Range (a formula is not needed for Range).

**Expert Solution Preview**

Introduction:

In this assignment, we will be analyzing data from the National Cancer Institute to evaluate descriptive statistics for different race/ethnicity groups. Understanding these statistics can provide valuable insights for healthcare professionals in terms of research, treatment options, and patient education. We will be calculating measures of central tendency (mean, median, and mode) as well as measures of variation (variance, standard deviation, and range) for each race/ethnicity group. Let’s begin with the calculations.

Answer:

To calculate the descriptive statistics for each race/ethnicity group, we will use the data provided by the National Cancer Institute in the “National Cancer Institute Data” Excel spreadsheet. Here are the steps to calculate the measures of central tendency and variation:

1. Measures of Central Tendency:

a) Mean: Calculate the mean by summing up all the data points within each race/ethnicity group and dividing the sum by the total number of data points in that group.

b) Median: Arrange the data points in each race/ethnicity group in ascending order. Then, identify the middle value. If there is an even number of data points, calculate the average of the two middle values.

c) Mode: Determine the data point(s) that appear most frequently within each race/ethnicity group.

2. Measures of Variation:

a) Variance: Calculate the variance by taking the difference between each data point and the mean within each race/ethnicity group, squaring the differences, summing them up, and dividing by the total number of data points in that group.

b) Standard Deviation: Take the square root of the variance to obtain the standard deviation. It measures the dispersion of data points around the mean within each race/ethnicity group.

c) Range: The range is the difference between the highest and lowest values within each race/ethnicity group. No specific formula is needed for this calculation.

By calculating these descriptive statistics for each race/ethnicity group in the National Cancer Institute dataset, we can gain a better understanding of the characteristics and variations within the data. These statistics will aid healthcare professionals in making informed decisions regarding research, treatment options, and patient education.